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Over the past decades, the field of social and behavior change communication (SBCC) has benefitted from communication science itself, but also from notable fields including psychology, sociology, political science, and medicine. Today, strategic social and behavior change communication is based on evidence, designed according to the best practices in the field, implemented at scale, monitored and evaluated to measure effectiveness. When applied to emerging infectious diseases, This approach must address multiple audiences with tailored and targeted messages at each dimension of the Avian Influeza communication approach to ensure that the public health programs keep up with the changing needs of its audiences. When the National Strategic Plan for Avian and Pandemic Influenza (API) Preparedness was written in January 2006, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) set out to accomplish two main goals under the section for Communication, Information, and Public Awareness1 a) Provision of risk information, education, and communication to all layers of the community to build awareness and avoid panic during bird flu events and a possible human pandemic, and b) Raise risk communication and public relations capabilities of health experts and government in relation to mass media. Keeping in mind the national recommendations of Ministry of Health and other contributing stakeholders in Indonesia, this EPHLI project attempts to understand the deep-seated dimensions to care seeking behaviors that may improve H5N1 health outcomes and improve the capacities of the relevant GOI program managers as well. While Indonesian government officials have been well trained in the epidemiological and veterinary aspects of Avian and Pandemic Influenza (API) transmission, there continues to be a lack of focus on interpersonal communication to improve the interaction between community-level healthcare staff and ‘at-risk’ members of the community. This apparent lack of communication with the public on how soon to report and/or seek treatment for suspected API exposure, coupled with weaknesses in the delivery of health services, have contributed significantly to human case fatalities from API in Indonesia. In Egypt, where case fatality averages around 30%i, WHO case files show that the period between the onset of symptoms and admission to hospital (i.e., not a community health center) was almost 27% shorter in Egypt than in Indonesia for the last 20 confirmed human H5N1 cases in each country (i.e., 3.7 days in Egypt versus 5 days in Indonesiaii). This care-seeking delay combined with the inefficiency of the Influenza-like Illness (ILI)-based service system present a formidable challenge to social and behavior change SBCC professionals and their healthcare counterpartsiii . This report will therefore provide an overview of the design, implementation, and exploration of unanswered questions that are necessary to improve health outcomes and determine where stakeholder participation and community input can be most helpful. Note: These documents have not been revised or edited to conform to agency standards. The findings and conclusions in these reports are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.