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Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs)

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All NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation reports and other NIOSH publications are available at no cost. You can either download a copy of the publication from the website or contact us for a copy. For HHE reports, please send an email to HHERequestHelp@cdc.gov. Information about all other NIOSH publications is available at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pubs/.

We carefully review our reports prior to publication, but we do make errors from time to time. We regret any typographical or other minor errors that you might find. If you find a substantive factual or data-related error, let us know. Please send an email to HHERequestHelp@cdc.gov with the report number (ex. HHE 2013-0500-7500), the authors' names, the error you are reporting, and the page number of the error. We will look into your comments, fix confirmed errors, and repost the report. Thank you for your interest in the HHE Program.

HHE Search Results

471 HHE reports were found based on your search terms. Reports are listed in order of year published with the most recently published reports listed first.


Year Published and Title

(2022) Whole-body vibration analysis of golf course maintenance tasks. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from golf course management concerning maintenance employees' exposure to whole-body vibration. Employees reported pain or discomfort in their lower back, shoulders, neck, and knees, which they thought was related to excessive whole-body vibration while doing certain work tasks. We visited the golf course to learn more about health concerns and to measure whole-body vibration exposures. During our site visit, we observed work processes, wor... (Click to show more)

(2021) Exposure to lead during residential water line replacement activities. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program received a request from the employer of a city water department concerning lead exposure among crews replacing lead water lines servicing residential homes. This occurred after two employees received blood tests indicating elevated lead levels. In response to these findings, the employer implemented some measures to minimize lead exposures among employees and submitted an HHE request. In response to this request, we conducted confidential medical interv... (Click to show more)

(2021) Exposures to metals and a perceived excess of cancer cases in a train maintenance facility. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from a union at a train maintenance facility concerning employee exposure to metals and a perceived excess of cancer. We visited the facility twice and focused our evaluation on first shift employees working in six shops (truck, wheel, motor, electronics, contactor, and tin) that worked on different maintenance and repair tasks. We observed work processes, work practices, and conditions; spoke informally to employees in each shop about heal... (Click to show more)

(2019) Exposure to metals and flame retardants at an electronics recycling company. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from an electronics recycling company. The managers were concerned about exposure to metals and flame retardants, as well as ergonomic stressors and hazardous levels of noise. We observed work operations, practices, and conditions; collected air, surface wipe, hand wipe, blood, and urine samples for metals and flame retardants; took sound level measurements; and assessed possible ergonomic hazards. Employees at this electronics recycling co... (Click to show more)

(2019) Exposures to metals and flame retardants at an electronics recycling company. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from an electronics recycling company. The managers were concerned about exposure to metals and flame retardants while recycling electronics. Our evaluation included collecting air, handwipe, and blood samples for flame retardants and metals. We also collected urine samples to evaluate flame retardant exposure. We found some flame retardants typically associated with electronics in the air, on employees' hands, in their blood, and in their ... (Click to show more)

(2019) Exposures to styrene during ultraviolet cured-in-place pipe installation. (Click to open report)
In October 2017, the Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the management of an ultraviolet cured-in-place pipe installer regarding styrene exposures at the worksites. The request sought to determine whether exposures were controlled using current practices and identify areas for improvement. We conducted an initial visit during February 5-6, 2018, and performed preliminary sampling at one site per day. We co... (Click to show more)

(2019) Lead and copper exposure at an indoor shooting range. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program received a management request from a government indoor shooting range because of concerns about employee exposure to lead and copper during cleaning activities. The facility contained three ranges. Two ranges used lead-based ammunition and one used frangible copper-based ammunition only. Employees were responsible for range cleaning in addition to maintenance activities, such as replacing exhaust fan filters and emptying buckets that collect bullets beh... (Click to show more)

(2018) Exposure to metals at an electronics recycling facility. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from managers at an electronics recycling company. The request concerned possible employee exposures to flame retardants and metals associated with electronics. To evaluate these concerns, we collected air, hand wipe, surface, and blood samples for metals, and observed operations, work practices, and working conditions. None of the air samples exceeded occupational limits. We found lead and cadmium on the employees' hands after they had was... (Click to show more)

(2018) Exposure to metals, flame retardants, and nanomaterials at an electronics recycling company. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from an electronics recycling company. The employer was concerned about employee exposure to metals and flame retardant chemicals while recycling electronics. We met with employer and employee representatives and toured the workplace to observe operations, work practices, and working conditions. We also collected air, hand wipe, surface wipe, blood, and urine samples for metals and flame retardants. We found some flame retardants typically ... (Click to show more)

(2018) Forklift operators' risk of musculoskeletal disorders at two manufacturing plants. (Click to open report)
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request from the employers of two manufacturing companies to evaluate potential ergonomic issues and musculoskeletal symptoms among forklift operators, particularly when driving forklifts in reverse. Forklifts were used to transport parts and products to employee workstations or warehousing areas. In both companies, the forklift operators often drove loaded forklifts in reverse to avoid part/product damage. We measured the seated postures and whole... (Click to show more)


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