Increasing Adult Vaccination Rates What Works
 
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections cause 80% of hepatocellular carcinomas. Annually 4,000-5,000 persons die from HBV-induced chronic liver disease and primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

Although HBV infection is uncommon among adults in the general population, it is highly prevalent in certain groups. The following table shows the risk of acquiring HBV infection in certain populations.

Prevalence of Hepatitis B in Various Population Groups

Population Group Prevalence of Serologic Markers of HBV Infection
  HBsAg(%) All Markers (%)
HIGH RISK    
Immigrants/refugees from areas of high HBV endemicity. 13 70-85
Clients in mental health institutions. 10-20 35-80
Users of illicit parenteral drugs. 7 60-80
Homosexually active men. 6 35-80
Patients of hemodialysis units. 3-10 20-80
Household contacts of HBV carriers 3-6 30-60
INTERMEDIATE RISK    
Prisoner (male). 1-8 10-80
Healthcare providers - frequent blood contact. 1-2 15-30
Staff of mental health institutions. 1 10-25
Heterosexuals with multiple partners. 0.5 5-20
LOW RISK    
Healthcare providers - no or infrequent blood contact. 0.3 3-10
Healthy adults (first-time volunteer blood donors). 0.3 3-5

Source: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (the Pink Book), Chapter 8, Hepatitis B, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 11th Edition, 2009, p. 106.

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