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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
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Self-Study STD Module - PID



  1. Cates W, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility: an epidemiologic update. Epi Rev 1990; 12:190-220.
  2. Cates W, Wasserheit JN. Genital chlamydia infections: epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. Am J Ob Gyn 1991; 164(6):1771-1781.
  3. CDC. Pelvic inflammatory disease: guidelines for prevention and management. MMWR 1991; 40(RR-5):1-21.  Available from URL:
  4. CDC. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2006. MMWR 2006;55 (RR-11). Available from URL:
  5. Hagerty CL, Ness RB.  Newest approaches to treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of recent randomized clinical trials.  Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 1; 44(7): 953-60.  Epub 2007 Feb 15. Review
  6. Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mardh P-A, Lemon SM, Stamm WE, Piot P, Wasserheit JN (editors). Sexually transmitted diseases, 3rd ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill, 1999.
  7. Landers DV, Sweet RL, editors. Pelvic inflammatory disease. New York (NY): Springer; 1997.
  8. Expert committee on pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease: research directions in the 1990s. Sex Trans Dis 1991; 18(1):46-64.
  9. Paavonen J, et al. Prevalence and manifestations of endometritis among women with cervicitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 152:280.
  10. Peterson HB, Walker CK, Kahn JG, Washington AE, Eschenbach DA, Faro S. Pelvic inflammatory disease: key treatment issues and options. JAMA 1991; 266(18):2605-2611.
  11. Sutton MY, Sternberg M, Zaidi A, St. Louis ME, Markowitz LE.  Trends in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease hospital discharges and ambulatory visits, United States, 1985-2001.  Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Dec; 32(12): 778-84.
  12. Walker CK, Kahn JG, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease: meta-analysis of antimicrobial regimen efficacy. J Infect Dis 1993; 168:969-78.
  13. Walker CK, Wiesenfield HC.  Antibiotic therapy for acute pelvic inflammatory disease: the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines.  Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 1; 44 Suppl 3: S-111-22. Review.
  14. Washington AE, Katz P. Cost of and payment source for pelvic inflammatory disease: trends and projections, 1983 through 2000. JAMA 1991; 266(18):2565-2569.
  15. Westrom L, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility: a cohort study of 1844 women with laparoscopically verified disease and 657 control women with normal laparoscopic results. Sex Trans Dis 1992; 19(4):185-192.
  16. Wolner-Hanssen P, Kiviat NB, Holmes KK. Atypical pelvic inflammatory disease: subacute, chronic, or subclinical upper genital tract infection in women. In: Holmes KK, Mardh P-A, Sparling PF, Wiesner PJ, Cates W, Lemon SM, Stamm WE (editors). Sexually transmitted diseases, 2nd ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill, 1990; 615-620.
  17. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W Jr. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Persp Sex Reprod Hlth 2004; 36 (1): 6-10.

Websites and Other Resources

  1. CDC, Division of STD Prevention:
  2. National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers:
  3. 2006 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines (including downloadable version for Palm devices):
  4. CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN):
  5. American Social Health Association (ASHA):
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Page last modified: June 3, 2009
Page last reviewed: June 3, 2009

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