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Self-Study STD Module - Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection



  1. Aoki FY, Tyring S, Diaz-Mitoma F, Gross G, Gao J, Hamed K. Single-day patient initiated famciclovir therapy for recurrent genital herpes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:8–13.
  2. Arvin AM, Prover CG:  Herpes simplex virus type 2 – a persistent problem.  New Engl J Med 1997; 337:1158-1159.
  3. Benedetti JK, Corey L, Ashley R. Recurrence rates in genital herpes after symptomatic first-episode infection. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:847–54.
  4. Bergstrom T, Vahlne A, Alestig K, et al.  Primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2-induced meningitis.  J Infect Dis 1990; 162:322-330.
  5. Bodsworth NJ, Crooks RJ, Borelli S, et al. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir in patient initiated treatment of recurrent genital herpes: a randomised, double blind clinical trial. Genitourinary Med 1997;73:110–6.
  6. Brock BV, Selke S. Benedetti J, et al.  Frequency of asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus in women with genital herpes.  JAMA 1990; 263:418-420.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006.  MMWR 2006:55(RR-11):16-20.
  8. Chosidow O, Drouault Y, Leconte-Veyriac F, et al. Famciclovir vs. aciclovir in immunocompetent patients with recurrent genital herpes infections: a parallel-groups, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. British J Dermatol 2001;144:818–24.
  9. Conant MA, Schacker TW, Murphy RL, et al. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for herpes simplex virus infe7ction in HIV-infected individuals: two randomized trials. Int J STD AIDS 2002;13:12–21.
  10. Corey L, Adams HG, Brown ZA, et al.  Genital herpes simplex virus infections:  clinical manifestations, course, and complications.  Ann Intern Med 1983; 98:958-972.
  11. Corey L, Spear PG.  Infections with herpes simplex viruses.  New Engl J Med 1986; 314:686-691 and 749-756.
  12. Corey L, Wald A, Patel R, et al. Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes. N Engl J Med 2004;350:11–20.
  13. Corey L.Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and HIV-1: The Dialogue between the 2 organisms continues. JID 2007;195:1242-4.
  14. DeJesus E, Wald A, Warren T, et al. Valacyclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. J Infect Dis 2003;188:1009–16.
  15. Diaz-Mitoma F, Sibbald RG, Shafran SD, Saltzman RL. Oral famciclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital herpes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:887–92.
  16. Engelberg R, Carrell D, Krantz E, Corey L, Wald A. Natural history of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Sex Transmit Dis 2003;30:174–7.
  17. Faro S. A review of famciclovir in the management of genital herpes.  Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 1998; 6(1): 38-43.
  18. Fife KH, Barbarash RA, Rudolph T et al. Valaciclovir versus acyclovir in the treatment of first-episode genital herpes infection.  Results of an international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial.  The Valaciclovir International Herpes Simplex Virus Study Group.  Sex Transm Dis 1997 Sep; 24(8): 481-6.
  19. Fleming DT, McQuillan GM, Johnson RE et al:  Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1995.  N Engl J Med 1997; 337; 1105-11.
  20. Freeman EE, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Cross PL, Whitworth JA, Hayes RJ. Herpes simplex virus 2 increases HIV acquisition in men and women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. AIDS 2006; 20:73-83.
  21. Henry RE, Wegmann JA, Hartle JE, Christopher GW. Successful oral acyclovir desensitization. Ann Allergy 1993;70:386-8.
  22. Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mardh P-A, Lemon SM, Stamm WE, Piot P, Wasserheit JN (editors). Sexually transmitted diseases, 3rd ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill, 1999.
  23. Koelle DM, Benedetti J, Langenberg A, Corey L.  Asymptomatic reactivation of herpes simplex virus in women after the first episode of genital herpes.  Ann Int Med 1992; 116:443-437.
  24. Langenberg AGM, Corey L, Ashley RL et al.  A prospective study of new infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.  N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1432-8.
  25. Leone PA, Trottier S, Miller JM. Valacyclovir for episodic treatment of genital herpes: a shorter 3-day treatment course compared with 5-day treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:958–62.
  26. Mertz GJ, Benedetti J, Ashley R, Selke S, Corey L.  Risk factors for the sexual transmission of genital herpes.  Ann Int Med 1992; 116:197-202.
  27. Mertz GJ, Schmidt O, Jourden JL, et al.  Frequency of acquisition of first-episode genital infection with herpes simplex virus from symptomatic and asymptomatic source contacts.  Sex Trans Dis 1985; 12:33-39.
  28. Mertz GJ, Loveless MO, Levin MJ, et al. Oral famciclovir for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in women. A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: Collaborative Famiciclovir Genital Herpes Research Group. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:343–9.
  29. Miyai T, Turner KR, Kent CK, et al. The psychosocial impact of testing individuals with no history of genital herpes for herpes simplex virus type 2. Sex Transmit Dis 2004;31:517–21.
  30. Nagot N, Ouιdraogo A, Foulongne V, et al. Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus. N Engl J Med 2007;356(8):790-9.
  31. Patel R, Bodsworth NJ, Woolley P, et al. Valaciclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital HSV infection: a placebo controlled study of once daily therapy. Genitourinary Med 1997;73:105–9.
  32. Patel, R.  Antiviral agents for the prevention of the sexual transmission of herpes simplex in discordant couples. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2004; 17:45-48.
  33. Posavad CM, Wald A, Kuntz S, et al. Frequent reactivation of herpes simplex virus among HIV-1–infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2004;190:693–6.
  34. Reitano M, Tyring S, Lang W, et al.  Valaciclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection:  A large-scale dose range-finding study.  J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 603-610.
  35. Reyes M, Shaik NS, Graber JM, et al. Acyclovir-resistant genital herpes among persons attending sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus clinics. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:76–80.
  36. Roberts CM, Pfister JR, Spear SJ. Increasing proportion of herpes simplex virus type 1 as a cause of genital herpes infection in college students. Sex Transmit Dis 2003;30:801–2.
  37. Romanowski B, Aoki FY, Martel AY, et al. Efficacy and safety of famciclovir for treating mucocutaneous herpes simplex infection in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS 2000;14:1211–7.
  38. Romanowski B, Valtrex HS230017 Study Group, Marina RB, Rob-erts JN. Patients’ preference of valacyclovir once-daily suppressive therapy versus twice-daily episodic therapy for recurrent genital herpes: a randomized study. Sex Transmit Dis 2003;30:226–31.
  39. Safrin S, Assaykeen T, Follansbee S, et al.  Foscarnet therapy for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in 26 AIDS patients:  preliminary data.  J Infect Dis 1990; 161:1078-1084.
  40. Safrin S.  Treatment of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus infections in patients with AIDS.  J AIDS 1992; 5(Suppl.1):S29-S32.
  41. Scott LL, Hollier LM, McIntire D, Sanchez PJ, Jackson GL, Wendel GD Jr Acyclovir suppression to prevent recurrent genital herpes at delivery. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2002;10:71–7.
  42. Scoular A, Gillespie G, Carman WF. Polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of genital herpes in a genitourinary medicine clinic. Sex Transmit Infect 2002;78:21–5.
  43. Scoular A. Using the evidence base on genital herpes: optimising the use of diagnostic tests and information provision. Sex Transmit Infect 2002;78:160–5.
  44. Sheffield JS, Hollier LM, Hill JB, Stuart GS, Wendel GD Jr Acyclovir prophylaxis to prevent herpes simplex virus recurrence at delivery: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:1396–403.
  45. Sizemore JM, Lkeman F, Whitley R, Hughes A, Hook EW. The spectrum of genital herpes simplex virus infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. JID 2006;193:905-11.
  46. Song B, Dwyer DE, Mindel A. HSV type specific serology in sexual health clinics: use, benefits, and who gets tested. Sex Transmit Infect 2004;80:113–7.
  47. Stone KM, Reiff-Eldridge R, White AD, et al. Pregnancy outcomes following systemic prenatal acyclovir exposure: conclusions from the International Acyclovir Pregnancy Registry, 1984–1999. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2004;70:201–7.
  48. Strick LB, Wald A, Celum C. Management of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in HIV Type 1-infected persons. CID 2006;43:347-56.
  49. Wald A, Zeh J, Barnum G, et al:  Suppression of subclinical shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 with acyclovir.  Ann Intern Med 1996; 124:8-15.
  50. Wald A. New therapies and prevention strategies for genital herpes.  Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28: Suppl 1:S4-13.
  51. Wald A, Langenberg AG, Link K, et al.. Effect of condoms on reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women. JAMA 2001;27;285:3100-6.
  52. Wald A, Carrell D, Remington M, Kexel E, Zeh J, Corey L. Two-day regimen of acyclovir for treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:944–8.
  53. Wald A, Huang M-L, Carrell D, Selke S, Corey L. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal services: comparison with HSV isolation in cell culture. J Infect Dis 2003;188:1345–51.
  54. Wald A, Langerberg AGM, Krantz E, et al. The relationship between condom use and herpes simplex virus acquisition. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:707–13.
  55. Wald A, Krantz E, Selke S, Lairson E, Morrow RA, Zeh J. Knowledge of partners genital herpes protects against herpes simplex virus tyrpe 2 acquistion. JID 2006;194:42-52.
  56. Watts DH, Brown ZA, Money D, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acyclovir in late pregnancy for the reduction of herpes simplex virus shedding and cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188:836–43.
  57. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W Jr. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Repro Health 2004; 36(1):6-10.
  58. Whittington WL, Celum CL, Cent A, Ashley RL. Use of a glycoprotein G-based type-specific assay to detect antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sex Transmit Dis 2001;28:99–104.
  59. Xu F, Sternberg MR, Kottiri BJ, et al. Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. JAMA 2006; 296:964-73.
  60. Zimet GD, Rosenthal SL, Fortenberry JD, et al. Factors predicting the acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody testing among adolescents and young adults. Sex Transmit Dis 2004; 31:665–9.
  61. Zuckerman RA et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppression with valaciclovir reduces rectal and blood plasma HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2-seropositive men: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Infect Dis 2007; 196: 1500 – 1508.

Websites and Other Resources

  1. CDC Division of STD Prevention
  2. National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers
  3. 2006 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines (including downloadable version for Palm devices)
    1-800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)
    TTY: 1-888-232-6348
    In English, en Espaρol
  5. CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)
  6. American Social Health Association (ASHA)
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Page last modified: June 3, 2009
Page last reviewed: June 3, 2009

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