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Self-Study STD Module - Chlamydia



  1. Black CM, et al. Head to head multicenter comparison of DNA probe and nucleic acid amplification tests for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women performed with an improved reference standard. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Oct; 40(10):3757-63. CCID, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.
  2. CDC. Expedited partner therapy in the management of sexually transmitted diseases.  Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006.
  3. CDC.  Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2006 supplement, chlamydia prevalence monitoring project.  Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2007.  Available from URL:
  4. CDC. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2006. MMWR 2006;55(RR-11):38-42. Available from URL:
  5. CDC. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatits and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections 2002. MMWR 2002; 51(No. RR-15) 1-38.
  6. CDC. Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. MMWR 1993; 42(RR-12):1-39. Available from URL:
  7. Cook RL et al.  Systematic review: noninvasive testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jun 7; 142(11):914-25.
  8. Datta SD, Sternberg M, Johnson RE, et al.  Gonorrhea and chlamydia in the United states among persons 14 to 39 years of age, 1999 to 2002. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jul 17; 147(2):89-96.
  9. Gaydos CA, Quinn TC, et al. Performance of the APTIMA Combo 2 assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female urine and endocervical swab specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jan; 41(1):304-9.
  10. Hadgu, A, Dendukuri N, Hilden J. Evaluation of nucleic acid amplification tests in the absence of a perfect gold-standard test: a review of the statistical and epidemiologic issues.Epidemiology. 2005 Sep; 16(5):604-12.
  11. Hu D, Hook EW 3rd, Goldie SJ.  Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in women 15 to 29 years of age: a cost-effectiveness analysis.  Ann Intern Med. 2004 Oct 5; 141(7): 501-13.
  12. Hillis SD, Wasserheit JN. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1399-1401.
  13. Lau CY, Qureshi Ak.  Azithromycin versus doxycycline for genital chlamydial infections: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.  Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Sep; 29(9): 497-502.
  14. Peterman TA, Tian LH, Metacalf CA, et al.  High incidence of new sexually transmitted infections in the year following a sexually transmitted infection: a case for  rescreening.  Ann Intern Med. 2006 Oct 17; 145(8):564-72.
  15.  Scholes D, Stergachis A, Heidrich FE, Andrilla H, Holmes KK, Stamm WE. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1362-66.
  16. Stamm WE, et al. Azithromycin for empirical treatment of the nongonococcal urethritis syndrome in men. JAMA 1995;274:545-41.
  17. Stephens RS.  The cellular paradigm of chlamydial pathogenesis.  Trends Microbiol. 2003 Jan;11(1):44-51.
  18. United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Screening: chlamydial infection.  Available from URL:
  19. Watson EJ, Templeton A, Russell I, etal.  The accuracy and efficacy of screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis: a systematic review.  J Med Microbiol. 2002 Dec;51(12):1021-31.
  20. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W Jr. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Repro H 2004; 36 (1): 6-10.
  21. Wiesenfield HC, Hillier SL, Krohn MA, et al.  Lower genital tract infection and endometritis: insight into subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease.  Obstet Gynecol.2002 Sep;100(3): 456-63.

Websites and Other Resources

  1. CDC Division of STD Prevention:
  2. National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers:
  3. 2006 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines (including downloadable version for Palm devices):
  4. STD information and referrals to STD clinics
        CDC-INFO     1-800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)
        TTY: 1-888-232-6348
        In English, en Español
  5. CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN):
  6. American Social Health Association (ASHA):
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Page last modified: December, 2009
Page last reviewed: December, 2009

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