This study examined ethnic group differences in the effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention on organizational climate and worker health and well-being. Our sample consisted of employees from 21 stores of a large national retail chain. The intervention involved establishing and facilitating employee problem-solving teams in 11 of the stores. Teams were charged with developing and implementing action plans tailored to the needs of their specific site. Pre- and postcomparisons of the treatment and control groups showed that the intervention produced positive effects on both the climate and health and well-being outcomes; however, these effects varied significantly by ethnic group. Particularly in terms of organizational climate, black and Hispanic employees were the primary beneficiaries of the participatory intervention process. These results are interpreted in terms of social identification and self-categorization theories and are contrasted with traditional participatory and diversity training approaches.