Occupational lung disease has been a major public health problem in China. The recently transformed industrial structure and expansion of the industrial labor force, accompanying the rapid industrialization and economic growth, pose both tremendous challenges and opportunities for occupational health policy and research. New occupational health problems are emerging, while the traditional occupational lung disease continued to occur. Simultaneously, relevant scientific research and professional activities have accelerated notably. The progress and achievement in occupational health research are creating more powerful forces in eliminating industrial hazards and protecting workers' health in China.