This study identified the clinical, individual, and workplace predictors of successful work role functioning (WRF) after carpal tunnel release surgery (CTRS). A community-based cohort (n = 197) was followed for 6 months post-CTRS. Predictors of successful WRF were analyzed prospectively using ordinal logistic regression. Baseline WRF predicted successful WRF at 2 months, whereas being depressed and a workers' compensation claimant predicted being out of work. Baseline WRF, improved self-efficacy, and a supportive organization predicted 6-month successful WRF. Supportive organizations have an impact on the effectiveness of medical interventions for CTS. The significance of improved self-efficacy at 6 months and depression at 2 months postsurgery highlights the importance of psychosocial management of musculoskeletal disorders.