This article examines the factors related to injuries due to inadequate blasting shelters and blast area security and identifies mitigation techniques. The key concepts are (1) accurate determination of the bounds of the blast area, (2) clearing employees from the blast area, (3) effective access control, (4) use of adequate blasting shelters, (5) efficient communications, and (6) training. Fundamentals are reviewed, with an emphasis on analyzing task elements and identifying root causes for selected blasting accidents. Mitigating techniques are presented, along with discussions and examples.
Explosives; Injuries; Safety-research; Hazards; Mining-industry; Employees; Accidents; Surface-mining; Underground-mining; Metal-mining; Nonmetal-mining; Geology; Coal-mining; Construction; Stone-mines; Gold-mines; Warning-signals; Warning-signs; Training; Engineering-controls; Fumes; Flyrock; Ventilation; Blasting