Air crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic ionizing radiation of galactic and solar origin and are among the more highly exposed occupational groups to ionizing radiation in the United States. Depending on flight route patterns, the annual dose may range from 0.2 to 5 mSv. By comparison, the average annual radiation dose equivalent of occupationally exposed adults in the United States is estimated to be 1.1 mSv. Cosmic-radiation dose depends primarily on altitude and geomagnetic latitude and to a lesser degree on solar activity. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that air crew exposures to natural radiation in-flight be treated as occupational exposures, United States flight crew exposures to natural cosmic radiation are not regulated or typically monitored. There are approximately 148,000 air crew (flight deck crew and flight attendants) in the United States.