The changing nature of the workforce through the beginning of the 21st century will produce changes in the nation's experience of occupational injury and illness. These changes, particularly the increase in women's entry into nontraditional occupations, will require that public health research be focused on the unique characteristics of women's exposure in the workplace. Obstacles in this research include the imprecision in matching numerator and denominator data to calculate rates, and the fact that employment projections are job-demand driven, rather than an extrapolation of an existing occupation-participation trend. Additionally, research will be needed to design, implement, and evaluate intervention strategies specific to the injuries and illnesses suffered by working women. Currently, standards are developed and implemented by using male capacities with little consideration to the significantly different physical and physiological differences in women (Headapohl, 1993). Research should assess the plausibility of redesigning jobs and work stations, as well as focus on establishing standards and regulations to accommodate this increasing diversity among workers.