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Psychological Empowerment at Work Scale

Content Area(s)

  • Job content
  • Job control
  • Power structure
  • Empowerment

Instrument Type


Occupation and Sector Specificity

Occupation(s):    Generic
Sector(s):    Generic

Name and Size of Work Organization and/or Workplace Psychosocial Measures

MeasureSize (# items)
Psychological empowerment 12

Other Content Areas Included in the Instrument


Developmental Status of the Instrument

Instrument used widely; well-defined properties


Original:    English
Other:     Don't know

Reliability and Validity Information (or Relevant Citation)

Spreitzer GM, McMcall MW & Mahoney JD (1997). Early identification of international executive potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28:6-29.

Selected Reference

Liden RC, Wayne SJ, Sparrowe RT (2000) An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 407-416.
Accessibility of the Instrument
Public Domain
  User Fees

Where to Obtain a Copy of the Instrument

The instrument can be obtained in print at Spreitzer GM (1995) Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 1442-1465, or online at
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