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Volume 2 | Issue 10 | October 2008

Daniel Vitek, MBA, PMP

Enterprise architecture (EA) is one of several practice areas that must be executed effectively to achieve cost savings, better collaboration, and reuse of IT investments. Agencies are expected to architect first, and then leverage that architecture as the foundation for sound IT management practices.

The intent of segment architecture is to ensure agencies are driving the use of EA as a strategic planning tool throughout the agency – one business segment at a time. It defines a roadmap for core mission areas and relates them to the overall EA via three principles: structure, reuse, and alignment.

A segmented architecture (SA) approach helps drive business decisions to support core mission areas from an investment perspective leveraged within and across Agencies, and the Federal government. Segments are defined into three categories:

  • Core Mission Areas: Unique service areas defining the mission or purpose of the Agency, defined by the Agency’s business model.
  • Common Business Services: Supports the core mission areas, are defined by Agency business models and include foundational mechanisms and back office services used to achieve Agency goals.
  • Enterprise Services: Enterprise services are defined by the Agency service model and include application and service components used to achieve Agency goals.

The importance of EA is to help improve performance, avoid cost, and save money. Kshemendra Paul, the Federal Chief Architect of The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has stated “Segment Architecture is the Key”.

SA development and maintenance is a continuous, iterative process that incorporates enterprise assets, systems, and IT investments that creates and support a segment-oriented view of the enterprise.

The OMB requires all Agencies to complete one new segment for a core mission line of business, business service, or enterprise service in their annual assessment. In addition, OMB is expected to monitor those Agencies to determine if the effort is responsible for producing better results in that particular segment and will leverage these assessments to make future funding decisions.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has already linked all major, tactical, and supporting investments to an EA defined segment. These relationships will support greater Agency transparency, and drive investment planning and resource allocation for core mission areas and common enterprise business services, identifying opportunities for leveraging existing resources and reusing common solutions.


General Management

The Project Management Institute’s (PMI) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) describes general management as encompassing planning, organizing, staffing, executing, and controlling the operation of an ongoing enterprise. The term General Manager often applies to an individual with responsibility for the overall strategic planning and direction of an organization often leaving the day-to-day management of various functional areas and projects to subordinate managers. General Managers typically have broad, overarching responsibility for business or organizational functions, planning, managing revenue and cost, marketing and/or sales, and day-to-day operations. It includes supporting disciplines such as:

  • Financial management and accounting
  • Purchasing and procurement
  • Sales and marketing
  • Contracts and commercial law
  • Manufacturing and distribution
  • Logistics and supply chain
  • Strategic planning, tactical planning, and operational planning
  • Organizational structures, organizational behavior, personnel administration, compensation,, benefits, and career paths
  • Health and safety practices
  • Information technology

For general management, interpersonal skills, sometimes referred to as “soft skills”, are particularly important to team development. By understanding the sentiments of project team members, anticipating their actions, acknowledging their concerns and following up on their issues, the project management team can greatly reduce problems and increase cooperation. Communication skills are used to exchange information. General management skills related to communications include ensuring that the right persons get the right information at the right time. General management skills also include the art of managing stakeholder requirements and analyzing the make-or-buy decision as a part of a project’s purchases and acquisition process. Specific skills required by general managers include:

  • Leading
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Directing
  • Controlling
  • Problem solving
  • Communicating
  • Negotiating
  • Staff development & Human resource functions

General management provides the foundation for project management skills. On any given project, skill in any number of general management areas may be required. The term Project Manager often applies to an individual with the responsibility for managing one functional area or a specific project; often with responsibility for planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closing of a finite work effort supporting a stated project objectives. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint of cost, time, and scope within the confines of quality control. Each must be managed effectively. All must be managed together if the project, and the project manager, is to be a success.

Portions of this newsletter were paraphrased from a presentation by Lane Chambers, PMP during the August 2008 meeting of the CDC Project Management Community of Practice (PMCoP).

For more information and tools related to the topic(s) covered in this newsletter, the CDC Unified Process, or the Project Management Community of Practice please visit the CDC Unified Process website at

Please also visit the CDC Unified Process Newsletter Archive located at for access to many additional newsletters, articles, and management related topics and information.


The CDC UP offers a short overview presentation to any CDC FTE or Non-FTE group. Presentations are often performed at your location, on a day of the week convenient for your group, and typically take place over lunch structured as one hour lunch-and-learn style meeting.

Contact the CDC Unified Process at or visit to arrange a short overview presentation for your group.


The CDC Unified Process Project Management Newsletter is authored by Daniel Vitek, MBA, PMP and published by the Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services.

For questions about the CDC Unified Process, comments regarding this newsletter, suggestions for future newsletter topics, or to subscribe to the CDC Unified Process Project Management Newsletter please contact the CDC Unified Process or visit



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